Kale – Pentland Brigg

Despite the current unseasonably mild weather in the UK, we have had our first frosts.  And that means it is time to harvest the kale.  This year, I’ve tried Pentland Brigg which is a short-lived perennial kale.  I got the seed from Pennard Plants, and germination was excellent.  I grew seedlings to a good size in the new greenhouse before planting out.  They were generally trouble-free.

pentland brigg seedling good shrunk

Pentland Brigg kale seedling

The plants grew well, and have become quite substantial specimens.  They are attractive, with curly edges to the leaves once they get going.

Pentland Brigg kale

Pentland Brigg kale

Mine definitely prefer good light.  The picture above is from the front garden, where they’ve done well.  They are somewhat smaller at the back, where light is more limited.  They are managing to grow though, so are an option for a shadier space.

I’ve found that the younger leaves are more tender and tasty (no surprises there) and the plants soon put on new growth.  And yes, it is absolutely true that kale is sweeter after the first frosts.  This is a lovely tasting kale, delicious stir-fried with garlic.  I hope it isn’t too short-lived a perennial, as it is certainly earning its place in my garden.

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Autumn un-tidy

A few musings as promised on the lack of Autumn ‘tidying’ (following Anni’s post).  In theory, I should be chopping down all these seed heads …

A corner of my front border

A corner of my front border

But looking at these more closely, I observe tiny cave-like dwellings in the marjoram …

pot marjoram seed heads

pot marjoram seed heads

And lurking inside those untidy purple toadflax seedheads are nutritious black seeds, which could be a perfect snack for something on a cold day …

toadflax seeds

toadflax seeds

Where I deadheaded them earlier this year, there are hollow stems – whole tower blocks where insects could be curling up ready for the winter …

hollow toadflax stems

hollow toadflax stems

The ‘lambs lettuce’ path below is full of bits of grass, self sown cranesbill, and strawberry plants that walked out of their pots …

lambs lettuce path

lambs lettuce path

I once tried to tidy up under this hedge, pulling up the grass and intending to put bark mulch underneath.  I hadn’t got very far before I noticed a movement.  On closer inspection, I saw a tiny newt which had been taking full advantage of the warm cover that the ‘mess’ of dried grass provided.  I picked it up to check that I hadn’t injured it, feeling pretty rotten that I’d disturbed it.  It sat, blinking, on my hand. I gave up the idea of tidying, and tucked the little creature back under the hedge. 

One permaculture principle is to ‘use edges and value the marginal‘:

“don’t think you are on the right track just because its a well-beaten path” 

My untidy path is not a well-beaten one, but this edgy ‘mess’ will be a haven for wildlife through the winter.  I can still step on it to get at the lambs lettuce for winter salads.  I’ll just need to give any lurking residents a bit of warning first.

Path Maintenance

This was a quick 45 minute job.  I picked a section of path  at the back to work on.  First I weeded it, which was really easy as they just lifted out of the mulch:

Path weeded shrunk

Then I moved aside the woody top layer, and dug out a trug full of the lovely dark brown crumbly wood mulch:

Mulch dug out boards put down shrunk

This left a bit of a hole, which I filled in with some rotten planks of wood that had  previously made a small raised bed.  I trampled it all down until it felt level (and safe!).  Meanwhile, the raspberries needed a haircut:

Overgrown raspberries shrunk

So I trimmed them back and tucked them into their wires, and put the woody cuttings down across the boards in the path.  They will die back and go brown over time:

Raspberries cut back onto path shrunk

Path maintenance.  Simple!

Paths that offer a yield

OK, so I’m a bit thrifty.  I don’t like shelling out hard-won cash on paving slabs, and I’m not keen on the environmental cost of them.  So I have evolved a rather unorthodox approach to ‘paths’.  Clearly, I do need to be able to access the raised beds.  My feet have to go somewhere.  So I had to come up with some sort of path covering solution.

There are two permaculture principles that I apply regularly to help me solve problems.  The first is ‘the problem is the solution’.  The second is to ‘keep everything in the system’.  I hate waste.  So when we had some trees cut back at the boundary of our property, we asked if we could keep the wood chips – keeping them in the system.  The tree surgeons left them in a pile, and we bagged them up and tipped them out onto our ‘path’ area in the back garden.  So far, so tidy.

path at back - good - shrunk

As time went by, of course, we found ourselves wading through our ‘paths’ in wellies in the wet winters.  The wood chips had turned into a beautiful growing medium.  And underneath the surface was a wonderful woody mulch which we can excavate and use on borders.  In the summer months when we need to access the beds, this mulch dries out and becomes perfectly useable as a path.  It also grows a few edible greens on the side.

path at back growing chard landcress sorrel - shrunk

I maintain the path by throwing down any of our woody cuttings – bits of trees,  shrubs, and even woody cabbage stalks.  These are things that don’t compost easily, but they do eventually break down on the path, after doing their job as a walking surface.  The problem – hard-to-compost ‘waste’ – becomes the solution.

back path - good - shrunk

The front path alongside the boundary hedge is something else again.  We started by putting down some leylandii trimmings from our friendly tree surgeon.  These came from a neighbour’s property, and the tree surgeons wheeled them to our property in our wheelie bin.  It is not a good idea to leave them in the bin too long, as they actually start to steam as they heat up.  We hurriedly laid the ‘path’.  This did its job as a path for a while.  After a surprisingly short space of time, things changed.  In the bed beside this path I had lambs lettuce.  This self-seeded prolifically into the leylandii trimmings, and seemed to rather like it there.  Before long, we had a bed of winter salad.  And in winter, of course, we don’t really need to use the path for access.

By spring and early summer, the lambs lettuce flowered, and we had a beautiful wildlife space …

front path overgrown 2 - shrunk

then it set seed …

Lambs lettuce seeding on front path

Lambs lettuce seeding on front path

Soon it had dried to a nice, walkable mulch.  All summer I had access down the side of the garden.

Lambs lettuce dried mulch

Lambs lettuce dried mulch

When the rains came again in early Autumn, the winter salads started to reappear, ready-mulched by last year’s growth.

Lambs lettuce seedlings

Lambs lettuce seedlings

A third permaculture principle is to ‘obtain a yield’.  These two path systems yield:

  • a walking surface for the time of the year when I need one;
  • a long-term compost system for woody, hard-to-compost trimmings;
  • a mulch that can be excavated when required, simply by removing the top layer;
  • a growing medium for additional edible greens, which can be weeded and eaten to reclaim the path.

Magic.  Just magic.

Permaculture Magazine

The 25th Anniversary issue of Permaculture Magazine just arrived …

PM94 cover

… with my article on designing and planting an edible perennial polyculture:

PM article

The article explains how, inspired by Anni Kelsey’s book Edible Perennial Gardening, I started to garden in a slightly different way.  This blog has been recording my development of the garden since April this year when I wrote that article.

Permaculture Magazine looks at practical solutions for more sustainable ways of living, creating productive systems that respect ecology and people (who are, after all, part of an ecology).  This latest (and beautifully redesigned) issue also contains articles about market gardening, natural skincare, compassionate dairy farming, Universal Basic Income, Food Forests, solar power, vegan cheese-making, and using natural spaces for healing.

You can subscribe from the Permaculture Magazine website, which also has useful blog articles.  They sell some good books too!

Harvest, harvest, while you still can

As I sit to type this there is a chill in the air, the sun is lower, and Autumn is signalling its presence.  Mists float through the valley, and the trees are tinged with orange.  Plants are increasingly frantic to seed, and insects and larvae have not much longer to feed.  The perennial tree cabbage is clearly being enjoyed:

tree cabbage aug 17 eaten

The borage has nearly finished flowering, but the bees tell me off when I try to remove it, even if there is just one flower left:

bee on borage aug 17

We want to invite the bugs to stay with us over winter, so they are nice and handy for the re-emergence of the garden in Spring.  Rick has built a couple of houses, which we will have fun furnishing this weekend (no trip to IK*A required).  Here’s one:

bug house unfurnished aug 17

I’m still harvesting salad:

salad early sept 17

The tomatoes are ripening now (they’re outside against our front wall which holds the heat from the sun).  I’m also harvesting red orache, nasturtium, garlic chives, chives, welsh onion, wild rocket, runner beans, sorrel, baby chard, golden oregano, lambs lettuce, mint, more runner beans … in fact, there  is more out there than I can usually remember to harvest.   (And by the way, all of those things listed do not get eaten by slugs).

So for now there is still plenty for everyone to eat.  But we’d better make the most of it while we can.

 

‘Edible Perennial Gardening’ Book Review

Edible Perennial Gardening: Growing successful polycultures in small spaces.  By Anni Kelsey, published 2014 by Permanent Publications.

annisbookcover.phpThis book sets out with a clear vision: “Looking towards a sustainable future when a polyculture of perennial vegetables is as familiar a feature of our gardening landscape as the conventional vegetable patch.”  The book clearly traces the author’s own experimental journey towards this vision, and shares the information that she’s learned along the way.  Continue reading